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8360 R1 2784 - On Board - C116.jpg
Developer: Commodore
Released: 1984-??-??
Type: Chip

1.) Square Wave
2.) Square Wave or White Noise
3.) PCM

The TED is the defining chip of the Commodore 16 and Plus/4 8-bit home computers. It handles graphics, two joysticks, part of keyboard input, timing, and audio.

The exact meaning of TED varies with sources:

  • "Text Editing Device" (Wikipedia since October 2004)
  • "Text Editor" (C= Hacking, Issue #12, March 1996)
  • "the 7360 TExt Display chip" (note the uppercase E; 264 Hardware Specification, chapter 4, December 1983)


On each of two channels, you can choose a pitch in 1024 steps. Compared to the VIC, high notes are in tune, but the bass does not get below A2 (110 Hz). Low noise actually sounds like noise, although you may notice a pattern as it gets higher.

For both channels together, you can only choose one volume, from 0 to 8. Changing this volume, while either channel is on, produces a click; the greater the change, the louder. This allows to play unsigned PCM samples on a third channel.

Several games play only one melody with a chorus effect (using two slightly detuned channels). Very few drivers generate envelopes.



The original 7360 was still being produced in January 1984.


8360 revision 1 from week 27 (July) 1984 on board of a C116.

The more common cost-reduced 8360 chip was already being produced in early July 1984.


Release Device Chip
1984-??-?? Commodore 116  ?
1984-??-?? Commodore 16  ?
1984-??-?? Plus/4  ?
199?-??-?? Commodore V364  ?
2000-12-?? Commodore 232  ?
2015-07-?? Commodore 264  ?


Many Commodore 16 and Plus/4 games play music and sound effects on the TED.


Picture Gallery

Emulation Status

plus4emu 1.2.7 is most accurate. YAPE 1.2.0 is slightly too fast. All other Windows emulators, including VICE 3.2, fail on some games.