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General Instrument AY-3-8910 Series
AY-3-8910 - Bare.jpg
Developer: General Instrument
Released: 1978-??-??
Type: Chip

1.) Square Wave and/or White Noise
2.) Square Wave and/or White Noise
3.) Square Wave and/or White Noise

The AY-3-8910 is a series of programmable sound generators (PSGs) designed by General Instrument at the end of the 1970s. The series was very successful, becoming the most-used audio chip of the arcade industry through the early 1980s. The series consists of several chips including the 8910, 8912, 8913, 8914, 8916, and 8917, each with a revision, as well as several licensed clones. These LSI circuits were able to produce various sounds by accessing them with software.

The chip features 3 tone generators, a noise generator, and an envelope generator which provides amplitude control. Though they were not designed for PCM, they could be programmed to play audio well enough to understand speech. The frequency ranges differ on each platform. One single chip can be stereo, since all channels are output through their own pin.

The AY-3-8910 series began dipping in popularity in 1985, and by 1987 it had been eclipsed by Yamaha's new family of audio chips. However, it still held a niche in games that didn't require high-fidelity sound for several more years, particularly among mahjong, trivia, adult, and gambling games. The chip was also very popular in slot machines of the 1980s.


Unlike the SN76489, the noise does not have its own channel, but is optionally mixed into any combination of square wave channels. Consequently, all noises share the same pitch, and each noise shares the volume of the square wave it accompanies or replaces. Some arrangers have mixed short noise drums over a square wave bass.

On each of channels A, B and C, you can choose:

  • Whether a square wave plays.
  • Whether the single white noise plays.
  • Square wave pitch from 1 to 4095. The highest possible frequency is the sound chip's clock frequency divided by 16. Further divided by 4095, it equals the minimum frequency.
  • Volume, either from 0 to 15, or fed by the single envelope generator.

On the whole chip, you can choose:

  • Noise pitch from 1 to 31.
  • Envelope. You can enable attack (volume up from 0 to 15) and/or decay (volume down from 15 to 0), at the end optionally reversed and/or looped. However, you can only choose one speed for both, and all channels get the same envelope. Due to those limits, many people generated envelopes themselves in software and set all three volumes manually.

Changing a volume produces a click; the greater the change, the louder. This allows to play unsigned 4-bit PCM samples. Changing all three volumes even allows 8-bit on mono. On stereo, 8-bit samples hiss loudly.



AY-3-8910 - Bare.jpg

The AY-3-8910 is a 40-pin chip with two general-purpose 8-bit parallel I/O ports, A and B. The chip was revised and given the name AY-3-8910A. The AY-3-8910 was also licensed to other companies including Winbond who sold it as the WF19054, and Yamaha who sold it as the YM2149.

The I/O ports are not related to audio, but provide a shortcut for hardware engineers, so if you remove the AY chip, then the keyboard, joystick or disk drive may stop responding as well.

This version of the chip was by far the most popular for arcade developers, as the majority games that used the 891x series went with the 8910. The 8910 was also used in interchangeable arcade systems like the DECO Cassette System and the Cal Omega cabinets. In addition to hundreds of arcade games, the 8910 was used in the early versions of the Mockingboard sound card and several early home computer systems including the MSX, Oric 1, Coulour Genie, and the Elektor TV Games Computer.


AY-3-8912 - Bare.jpg

The AY-3-8912 is the same as the AY-3-8910 only with a 28-pin footprint in order to save space on the circuit board. While the chip still has parallel port B functionality, only parallel port A is actually connected to any pins. The chip continued to be manufactured after Microchip Technology was spun off under the name AY38912/P. There is a revision chip called the AY-3-8912A/P.

The 8912 was very popular in European home computers and was used in the Vectrex, Amstrad CPC, and the ZX Spectrum (peripherals and later models). It was also used in a handful of arcade games and the ill-fated Amstrad GX4000 console. The chip could also be found in nearly every slot machine made by Bellfruit throughout the 1980s.


AY-3-8913 - On Board.jpg

The AY-3-8913 is the same as the 24-pin chip only with both A and B parallel ports disconnected for an even smaller circuit board footprint. Though it didn't have parallel access, it still featured the same audio capabilities as the other chips. It was released approximately 6 months after the 8910 and 8912 chips. There is a revision chip called the AY-3-8913A.

While no home computers used the 8913, the chip can be found in a couple of arcade games. However, the biggest user of the 8913 was the the later Mockingboard sound cards--including the homebrew v1--each of which used two chips.


AY-3-8914 - On Board.jpg

The AY-3-8914 is mostly the same as the 40-pin AY-3-8910 chip, only with a different pin layout and a 2-bit envelope and volume field. A revision chip was made with the name AY-3-8914A.

This was only used in the Intellivision and Intellivision II video game consoles.


Little is known about the 8916.


The AY-3-8917 is a 40-pin DIP which was used in the Intellivision peripheral, the Entertainment Computer System. By adding it to the console's onboard 8914, a muscial keyboard with 6-note polyphony could be played.


YM2149F - Bare.jpg

See full article, YM2149.

The YM2149, also known as the Software-Controlled Sound Generator (SSG), is modified AY-3-8910 re-branded by Yamaha. The chip has twice the resolution as the original, but a double-rate volume envelope table. Pin 26 can be used to halve the master clock when pulled low. This chip was used by the MSX2, MSX2+, MSX2 TurboR, and Atari ST. It has several revisions, one of which is the YM2149F which was embedded in Sunsoft's 5B chip.

Additional revisions of the YM2148 include the YM3439, YMZ284, YMZ285, and the YMZ294; though, these do not appear to have ever been used in a video game.


AY8930-P - Bare.jpg

See full article, AY8930/P.

The AY8930/P was designed and sold by General Instrument's offshoot company, Microchip Technology. It improved on nearly every aspect of the original design and could also run in AY-3-8910 compatibility mode which made it mostly backward-compatible with the AY-3-8910.


Over the years, a number of computers, video game consoles, and peripheral devices used the AY-3-891x series of chips. This is a chronological breakdown of those devices, and which chips they used.

Release Device Chip
1979-??-?? Intellivision AY-3-8914
1980-??-?? DECO Cassette System AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Mockingboard: Sound I AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Mockingboard: Sound II 2x AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Mockingboard: A 2x AY-3-8913
198?-??-?? Mockingboard: C 2x AY-3-8913
198?-??-?? Mockingboard: D 2x AY-3-8913
198?-??-?? Mockingboard: M 2x AY-3-8913
1981-??-?? Cal Omega AY-3-8912
1982-08-?? Colour Genie AY-3-8910
1982-11-?? Vectrex AY-3-8912
1982-??-?? Intellivision II AY-3-8914A
1983-06-27 MSX AY-3-8910
1983-10-?? Oric 1 AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? ADD-ON AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Aquarius Mini-Expander AY-3-8914
1983-??-?? Essex Micro Electronics SoundBoard AY-3-8912
1983-??-?? Entertainment Computer System AY-3-8917
1983-??-?? Fuller Box AY-3-8912
1983-??-?? ZXM Sound Box AY-3-8912
1984-??-?? Amstrad CPC AY-3-8912
1984-??-?? 3-Channel Sound Unit AY-3-8912
1985-??-?? с Bank Street Music Writer Card AY-3-8913
1985-??-?? ZX Spectrum AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Elektor TV Games Computer (Expanded Version) 2x AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Player's Edge Plus AY-3-8912
1987-??-?? System 85 AY-3-8912
1990-09-?? GX4000 AY-3-8912
2005-??-?? Mockingboard v1 2x AY-3-8913
200?-??-?? Mockingboard v1a 2x AY-3-8913


The 891x series was by-far the most used audio chip found in arcade games in the first half of the 1980s. The most common configurations was two AY-3-8910 chips used in tandem for 6 channels of audio, though developers used as many as five concurrent chips.

Note: Most of the chip information in the game list doesn't distinguish between A-revision chips and original design chips because the information comes from the MAME database. Further investigation must be made to figure out if the game uses the original chip or the revision chip.


The AY-3-891x series was still quite new at this point. Though the chip came out at the end of the 1970s, it wasn't found in a released arcade cabinet until 1980, but already developers were seeing the benefit of using multiple chips for better audio fidelity.

The chip's growth in popularity in the upcoming year indicates that developers were starting to embrace the chip in 1980.

List of 1980 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1980-??-?? Carnival (ARC) AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? Crazy Climber (ARC) AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? The End (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? Killer Comet (ARC) AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? Mad Alien (ARC) AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? Megatack (ARC) AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? New York (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? R2D Tank (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? Shark Attack (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1980-??-?? Speak & Rescue (ARC) AY-3-8910


The popularity of the 891x chip series tripled from 1980 to 1981 catapulting it to the most popular audio chip of the year by far. It would only grow in popularity for 1982.

Frogger (ARC) is one of the more popular games of the year to utilize this chip.

List of 1981 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1981-??-?? 18 Holes Pro Golf (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Armored Car (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Astro Fantasia (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Battle of Atlantis (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Challenger (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Crazy Kong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Crazy Kong Part II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Demoneye-X (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Draco (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Draw Poker III (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Enigma (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Frisky Tom (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Frog & Spiders (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Frogger (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Funky Fish (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Grand Champion (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Imola Grand Prix (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Jump Bug (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Jungler (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Kaos (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Kick (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? King Derby (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Lock'n'Chase (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Lucky Poker (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Mariner (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Mars (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Moon Shuttle (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Moonwar (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? New Double Bet Mahjong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Oli-Boo-Chu (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Omega Race (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Panther (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? The Percussor (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Red Alert (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? River Patrol (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Round-Up (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Route 16 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Royal Mahjong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Satan's Hollow (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Scramble (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Sky Skipper (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Solar Fox (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Space Cruiser (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Space Seeker (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Status Black Jack (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Status Fun Casino (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Strategy X (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Super Cobra (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Super Tank (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? T.T Mahjong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Thief (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Tournament Pro Golf (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Treasure Island (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Tri-Pool (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Triple Draw (ARC) AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Turtles (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1981-??-?? Video Hustler (ARC) AY-3-8910


With around 100 arcade games under its belt, the 891x remains the most widely used arcade audio chip for the second year in a row. While it will continue to be top the charts for a couple more years, it has already neared its peak usage.

Popular games to use these chips include Anteater (ARC), Burger Time (ARC), Kangaroo (ARC), Moon Patrol (ARC), Popeye (ARC), and Tron (ARC).

List of 1982 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1982-??-?? Alpine Ski (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? The Amazing Adventures of Mr. F. Lea (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Amidar (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Anteater (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Bagman (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Battle Cross (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Birdie King (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Blue Print (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? The Bounty (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Burger Time (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Burnin' Rubber (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Buster (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Calipso (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Cat and Mouse (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Catapault (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Changes (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Check Man (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? D-Day (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Dark Planet (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Demon (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Devil fish (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Disco No.1 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Dock Man (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Domino Man (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Draw 80 Poker (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Dream Shopper (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? El Grande - 5 Card Draw (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Fly-Boy (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Front Line (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Funky Bee (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Hana Awase (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Hot Shocker (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Jack the Giantkiller (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Jolly Jogger (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Jungle King (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Kangaroo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Koi Koi Part 2 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Kozmik Kroozr (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Leprechaun (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Little Casino (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Loco-Motion (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Looping (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Lost Tomb (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Macho Mouse (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Marine Boy (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Megadon (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Mermaid (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Mighty Monkey (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Minky Monkey (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Mole Attack (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Monster Zero (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Moon Patrol (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? NATO Defense (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Pirate Treasure (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? The Pit (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Pooyan (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Popeye (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? QB-3 (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Radical Radial (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Rescue (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Rougien (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Scorpion (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Shougi (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Sky Army (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Sky Bumper (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Springer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Strike Bowling (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Super Mouse (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Survival (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Swimmer (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Tactician (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Talbot (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Tazz-Mania (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Tennis (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Time Pilot (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Time Tunnel (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Triple Punch (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Tron (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Tugboat (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Tutankham (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Wacko (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Wild Western (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Winners Circle (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? World Tennis (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Zektor (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Zig Zag (ARC) AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Zoar (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1982-??-?? Zzyzzyxx (ARC) AY-3-8910


The 891x series remained the most popular in 1983 with over 100 arcade games utilizing it for audio. The numbers would be about the same for next year, which means developers were still planning their upcoming games around it.

Popular 1983 games to use this chip series include 10-Yard Fight (ARC), Commando (ARC), Dragon's Lair (ARC), Elevator Action (ARC), Gyruss (ARC), Spy Hunter (ARC), and Tapper (ARC).

List of 1983 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1983-??-?? 10-Yard Fight (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? A.D. 2083 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Ambush (ARC) 2x AY-3-8912
1983-??-?? Arabian (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Aztarac (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Battle Cruiser M-12 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Bega's Battle (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? The Big Pro Wrestling! (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Bio Attack (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Birdie King 2 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Boggy '84 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Bongo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Boom Rang'r (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Car Jamboree (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Cavelon (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Chak'n Pop (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Champion Baseball (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Champion Baseball Part-2: Pair Play (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Change Lanes (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Cluster Buster (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Commando (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Computer Quiz Atama no Taisou (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Cosmic Chasm (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Dacholer (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Dingo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Discs of Tron (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Dog Fight (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Domino Man (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Dommy (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Dragon's Lair (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Draw 80 Poker - Minn (ARC) AY-3-8912
1983-??-?? Elevator Action (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Espial (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Exciting Soccer (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Exerion (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Fighting Roller (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Flipper Jack (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Guzzler (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Great Guns (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Gyruss (ARC) 5x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Harem (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? High Way Race (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Hoccer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Hopper Robo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Ice Cold Beer (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Intrepid (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Jackpot Joker (ARC) AY-3-8912
1983-??-?? Jangou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Joinem (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Joshi Volleyball (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Journey (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Joyful Road (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Jump Coaster (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Juno First (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Kick Boy (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Levers (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Lover Boy (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? M.A.C.H. 3 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8913
1983-??-?? Marvin's Maze (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Mega Zone (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Minefield (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Mini Boy (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Money Money (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Monoshiri Quiz Osyaberi Macha (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Mouser (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Net Wars (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? New Sinbad 7 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? NFL Football (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Night Star (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Noah's Ark (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Nova (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Ozon I (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Pickin' (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? The Pit Boss (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Popper (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Pro Bowling (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Pro Soccer (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Pro Sports: Bowling, Tennis, and Golf (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Quarter Horse (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Roc'n Rope (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Rock Duck (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Rootin' Tootin' (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Saturn (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Scrambled Eggs (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Screw Loose (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? SF-X (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Skater (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Sky Lancer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Space Ace (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Spy Hunter (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Stinger (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Super Doubles Tennis (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Super Draw Poker (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Super Glob (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Super Rider (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Swinging Singles (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Tapper (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Ten Pin Deluxe (ARC) AY-3-8912
1983-??-?? Time Limit (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? The Tin Star (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Top Roller (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Traverse USA (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Tropical Angel (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? TX-1 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Uncle Poo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Vastar (ARC) AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Water Ski (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Yamato (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Zeroize (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1983-??-?? Zodiack (ARC) AY-3-8910


Yet another 100+ games used the 891x series in 1984, keeping it well on the top, though the chip is now starting to show its age. Developers have been pushing it to the max, and Yamaha is starting to release new audio chips of their own.

Some of the more popular games to use this chip in 1984 include 1942 (ARC), Bomb Jack (ARC), Cobra Command (ARC), Gyrodine (ARC), Karate Champ (ARC), Lode Runner (ARC), and Seicross (ARC).

List of 1984 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1984-??-?? 1942 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Acrobatic Dog-Fight (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? B-Wings (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? The Battle-Road (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Ben Bero Beh (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? The Berenstain Bears In Big Paw's Cave (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Birdie King 3 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Bomb Jack (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Botanic (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Buggy Challenge (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Bull Fighter (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Casino Five (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Chinese Hero (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Cobra Command (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Country Girl (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Crater Raider (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Crowns Golf (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Cycle Mahbou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? D-Day - Jaleco (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? The Dealer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Demolition Derby (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Dynamic Ski (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Equites (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Exciting Soccer II (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Field Day (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Fighting Basketball (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Formation Z (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Forty-Love (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Freeze (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Gladiator 1984 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Great Swordsman (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Gyrodine (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Hangman (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Hole Land (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? IGMO (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Imago (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Itazura Tenshi (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Jack Rabbit (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Jan Oh (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Jangou Lady (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Jumping Cross (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Kamikaze Cabbie (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Karate Champ (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Kick Start Wheelie King (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Kung-Fu Master (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Kung-Fu Taikun (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Liberation (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Little Casino (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Lode Runner (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Lode Runner II: The Bungeling Strikes Back (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Lucky Girl (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Mad Crasher (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Main Event (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Mr. Kougar (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Mysterious Stones: Dr. John's Adventure (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Night Bunny (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Night Gal (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Ninjakun Majou no Bouken (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Othello (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Pandora's Palace (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Parallel Turn (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Pinbo (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Pirate Ship Higemaru (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Pit & Run: F-1 Race (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Progress (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Revenger (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Roller Jammer (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Royal Casino (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Royal Queen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Rumba Lumber (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Scion (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Sea Fighter Poseidon (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Seicross (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Son Son (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Spectrum I+ (ARC) AY-3-8912
1984-??-?? Speed Attack! (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Speed Coin (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Squash (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Super Bagman (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Super Casino (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Syusse Oozumou (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Taxi Driver (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? The Three Stooges In Brides Is Brides (ARC) 2x AY-3-8913
1984-??-?? Timber (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Trivia Quiz (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Trivia Two (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Trivia Hangup (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Trivia Quest (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Tube Panic (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Two Tigers (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Us vs. Them (ARC) 2x AY-3-8913
1984-??-?? Vanguard II (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Victorious Nine (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Video Vince and the Game Factory (ARC) 2x AY-3-8913
1984-??-?? Vs 10 Yard Fight (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? VS Gong Fight (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Vulgus (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Wall Crash (ARC) AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Wanted (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Wily Tower (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1984-??-?? Wiz Warz (ARC) 2x AY-3-8913
1984-??-?? Zarya Vostoka (ARC) 2x AY-3-8913
1984-??-?? Zaviga (ARC) 2x AY-3-8913


1985 saw a noticeable drop in use of the 891x series with fewer than 100 games. Although the chip remained the most popular among developers, several competing Yamaha chips had entered the market. They were only used in a handful of games in 1985, but their numbers would grow significantly in the upcoming years.

Notable games from 1985 to use the 891x series include City Connection (ARC), Mag Max (ARC), and Road Blaster (ARC).

List of 1985 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1985-??-?? 86 Lions (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Agent Super Bond (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Arrow Bingo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Bogey Manor (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Bubble System BIOS (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Canvas Croquis (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Cerberus (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? City Connection (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Cop 01 (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Counter Steer (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Crazy Rally (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Crowns Golf In Hawaii (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Exed Exes (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? FairyLand Story (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Field Combat (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Flashgal (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Galactic Warriors (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Gekisou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Go Go Mr. Yamaguchi (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Gridiron Fight (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? HAL21 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? High Voltage (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Horizon (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Jansou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Jolly Card (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Jongkyo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? King of Boxer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Knuckle Joe (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Konami GT (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? The Koukouyakyuh (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? The Kusayakyuu (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? The Lady Master of Kung Fu (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Lode Runner III: The Golden Labyrinth (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Lot Lot (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Lovely Cards (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Lucky Lady (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Mag Max (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Mat Mania (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Mayhem 2002 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Metal Soldier Isaac II (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Mirax (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? N.Y. Captor (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Nemesis (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Night Gal Summer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Onna Sansirou: Typhoon Gal (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Pastel Gal (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Penguin-Kun Wars (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Performan (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Pinball Action (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Pontoon (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Power Play (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Progressive Music Trivia (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Quadro Quiz II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Quiz Olympic (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Quizmaster (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Raiders5 (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Real Mahjong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Real Mahjong (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Road Blaster (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Royal Card (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Samurai Nihon-Ichi (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Second Chance (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Sex Triv (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Shanghai Kid (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Sky Destroyer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Slot Carnival (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Spelunker (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Spiel Bude (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Splendor Blast (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Submarine (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Super Speed Race Junior (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Super Triv (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Super Wing (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Sure Shot (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Symbols (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Tank Busters (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Tehkan World Cup (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Three Ds: Three Dealers Casino House (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Tic Tac Trivia (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Tiger Heli (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Triv Four (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Trivia ? Whiz (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Trivia Madness (ARC) AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Turbo Tag (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? TwinBee (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Wink (ARC) AY-3-8912
1985-??-?? Wiz (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? World Series: The Season (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1985-??-?? Zero Target (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910


The 891x series was well into its decline by 1986, being found in fewer than 60 games. Although it was still popular, it was being usurped by Yamaha's line of new audio chips and various Texas Instrument chips. No longer were developers using the 891x for their best games, it was now found in the games that didn't need quality music like poker, mahjong, and trivia games.

Notable games from 1986 to use the 891x include Kid Nikki: Radical Ninja (ARC) and Solomon's Key (ARC).

List of 1986 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1986-??-?? Alcon (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Alley Master (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Apparel Night (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Arkanoid (ARC) YM2149
1986-??-?? Big Apple Games (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Big Deal (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Big Event Golf (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Calorie Kun vs Noguranian (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? City Love (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Clockwise (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Crystal Gal (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Crystal Gal 2 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Cycle Shooting (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Daikaiju no Gyakushu (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Danger Zone (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Dodge City (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Don Den Mahjong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Golden Poker (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Gone Troppo (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Guardian (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Halley's Comet (ARC) 4x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Halley's Comet (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Kid Nikki: Radical Ninja (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Land Sea Air Squad (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Legend (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Lode Runner IV: Teikoku Karano Dasshutsu (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Lucky Cards (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Mahjong Club (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Mahjong Senka (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Mahjong Shiyou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Mahjong Sisters (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Mahjong Yarou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Meijinsen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Mission 660 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Night Love (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Novo Play Multi Card (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Ojanko Club (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Ojanko Yakata (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Phraze Craze (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Prebillian (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Real Mahjong Haihai Jinji Idou Hen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Real Mahjong Haihai Seichouhen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Red Robin (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? S.R.D. Mission (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Second Love (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Solomon's Key (ARC) 3x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Spelunker II (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Supa Silva (ARC) AY-3-8913
1986-??-?? Super Triv II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Super Trivia Master (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Tee'd Off (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Watashiha Suzumechan (ARC) AY-3-8910
1986-??-?? Youjyuden (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910


Now in the sunset of its lifespan, the 891x shows up in only around 40 games. Nearly all of the popular games of this year were using one of the several Yamaha audio chips and the 891x has been demoted to cheaper gambling or adult games which utilize it more for sound effects than music. Notice how most games only use a single 891x chip which yields mono audio rather than two for stereo music.

There are no notable games to mention, however both the Player's Edge Plus and System 85 architectures made use of the AY-3-8912.

List of 1987 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1987-??-?? Airwolf (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Baseball: The Season II (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Big Deal Club (ARC) AY-3-8912
1987-??-?? Bijokko Yume Monogatari (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Bikkuri Card (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Cash Blitz (ARC) AY-3-8912
1987-??-?? Cherry Chance (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Chinese Casino (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Deal 'Em (ARC) AY-3-8913
1987-??-?? Deluxe Trivia ? Whiz (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Ginga NinkyouDen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Hayaoshi Taisen Quiz Hyhoo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Hayaoshi Taisen Quiz Hyhoo 2 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Hi Lo Silver (ARC) AY-3-8912
1987-??-?? House Mannequin (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? House Mannequin Roppongi Live Hen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Iemoto (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Jackpot Club (ARC) AY-3-8912
1987-??-?? Live Gal (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? The Mah-jong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Mahjong Block Jongbou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Mahjong Diplomat (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Mahjong Gaiden (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Makaijan (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Ojanko Yakata 2bankan (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Ojousan (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Quarterback (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Redline Racer (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Seiha (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Super Baseball Double Play Home Run Derby (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Super Duper Casino (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Super Qix (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Super Real Mahjong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Super Real Mahjong 2 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Tonton (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Trail Blazer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Up Your Alley (ARC) AY-3-8910
1987-??-?? Vs. Hot Smash (ARC) AY-3-8910


Despite no longer being used in popular action games, the 891x still holds onto its niche of providing sound for gambling and adult games with another 30+ cabinets in 1988. However, Yamaha is slowly encroaching into this market as well.

List of 1988 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1988-??-?? Almond Pinky (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Alpha One (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Bijokko Gakuen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Chance Kun (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? The Couples (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Hanaroku (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Hard Head (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Idol-Mahjong Housoukyoku (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? John Elway's Team Quarterback (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Kanatsuen no Onna (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Lotus SE (ARC) AY-3-8912
1988-??-?? Lucky 74 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Mahjong Kaguyahime (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Mahjong Studio 101 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Mahjong-zukino Korinai Menmen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Ojanko High School (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Orange Club: Maruhi Kagai Jugyou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Penguin Adventure (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Pit Boss II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Power Surge (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Rettou Juudan Nekkyoku Janshi: Higashi Nippon Hen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? The Ritz (ARC) AY-3-8912
1988-??-?? Roulette (ARC) AY-3-8912
1988-??-?? The Royal (ARC) AY-3-8912
1988-??-?? SSI Poker (ARC) AY-3-8912
1988-??-?? Strike Zone Baseball (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Super Nudge Gambler (ARC) AY-3-8912
1988-??-?? Super Pit Boss (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Super Real Mahjong Part 3 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Super Ten V8.3 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Super Triv III (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Taiwan Mahjong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1988-??-?? Viper (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910


1989 depicts the finale of the 891x series. Despite the year being a boon for Mahjong games which traditionally used 891x chips, the majority of them are now using Yamaha chips for sound. Only about 25 games used the 891x this year, and very few were non-gambling games.

List of 1989 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1989-??-?? All American Football (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Cash Explosion (ARC) AY-3-8912
1989-??-?? Club Premier (ARC) AY-3-8912
1989-??-?? Connect 4 (ARC) AY-3-8913
1989-??-?? Daisyarin (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Double Dealer (ARC) AY-3-8912
1989-??-?? Exciting Black Jack (ARC) AY-3-8912
1989-??-?? Hana Kochou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Idol no Himitsu (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Inquizitor (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Ironman Ivan Stewart's Super Off-Road (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Kasino '89 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Mahjong Derringer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Mahjong Gekisha (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Mahjong Kaguyahime Sono 2 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Mahjong Shinkirou Deja Vu (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? New Lucky 8 Lines (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? NFL (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Omotesandou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Pesadelo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Spark Man (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Super Nudger II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1989-??-?? Supercards (ARC) AY-3-8912
1989-??-?? Vegas Roulette (ARC) AY-3-8910


Due to the nature of game cabinet distribution, a fair amount games were released with an unknown year. The following games were probably released in the 1980s, though more research is needed to properly determine the precise year. Since the AY-3-891x series was the king of the first half of the 1980s, it's likely that they were released around the beginning and middle of the decade. Most of the games listed here are slot machines rather than arcade games.

List of 198? Games
Release Game Chip Sample
198?-??-?? Active 8 (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Aladdin's Cave (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Armada (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Bank a Coin (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Bar Trek (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Barcode (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Big 10 (ARC) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? The Big Match (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Bouncer (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Calypso (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Carrousel (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cash Attraction (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cash Card (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cash Coin (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cash Explosion (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cash Wise (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cashino (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cat & Mouse (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cherry Master (ARC) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? China Town Club (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Classic (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Clockwise Club (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Clown Around (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club 2000 (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club 2001 (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club 65 (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club Diamond (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club Explosion (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club Runner (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club Spinner (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club Temptation (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Club Wise (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Conqueror (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Cops & Robbers (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Cops & Robbers Deluxe (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Count Cash Club (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Dagobert's Vault (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Discovery (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Double Chance (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Dream Machine (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Fantastic (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Final Touch (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Flash (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Fortune Trail (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Frog Hop (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Fruit Lines (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Fruit Snappa (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Fun House Club (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Fun World Quiz (ARC) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Golden Steppa (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Good Times (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Grand Prix (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Grand Slam (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Happy Hour (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Hot Lines (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Impact (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Jolly Joker (ARC) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? King's Club (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Lady Liner (ARC) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Linx (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Magic Circle (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Manhattan (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Master Club (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Masterspy (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Mistral (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Mystery Spin (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? New Lucky 8 Lines (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Nudge Double Up MkII (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Olympia (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Oracle (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Plus Nudge (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Power Lines (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Quatro (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Rainbow (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Reel Cash (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Revolution (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Road Runner (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Romar Triv (ARC) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Rose 'n' Crown (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Route 66 (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Saloon (ARC) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Santana (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Satellite (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Shanghai (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Spectre (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Spitfire (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Sterling (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Strike 4 (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Strike It Rich (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Supa Steppa (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Superbank (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Superstar (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Tiara (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Top 1000 (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Top Spirit (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Top Up (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Tornado (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Tri Star (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Tumble (SLOT) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Typhoon Club (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Ultimate (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Ventura (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Victory (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Voyager (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Wild Cat 3 (ARC) AY-3-8910
198?-??-?? Wild Thing (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Winfalls (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Winning Streak (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Winsprint (SLOT) AY-3-8912
198?-??-?? Zeppelin (SLOT) AY-3-8912


Entering the new decade, the 891x chip series still holds on to a small amount of the market share that relies on what is now viewed as low-quality audio. Mahjong games and slot machines are about all that's left of the 30 or so games using the 891x in 1990.

List of 1990 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1990-??-?? 4 En Raya (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? 7jigen no Youseitachi (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? American Poker II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Backgammon (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Bar-gain (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1990-??-?? Casino Club (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1990-??-?? Casino Gambler Club (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1990-??-?? Casino Royale Club (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1990-??-?? Casino Strip XI (SLOT) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Club Attraction (SLOT) AY-3-8912
1990-??-?? Every Second Counts (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Hana Jingi (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Joker Poker (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Jong Tou Ki (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Lady Frog (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Lucky Roulette Plus (ARC) AY-3-8912
1990-??-?? Mahjong Campus Hunting (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Mahjong If...? (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Mahjong Neruton Haikujiradan (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Mahjong X-Tal 7 - Crystal Mahjong (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Mahjong Yuugi (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Pig Out: Dine Like a Swine! (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Pit Boss Superstar (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Poker Roulette (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Star Fighter (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Super Lucky Roulette (ARC) AY-3-8910
1990-??-?? Swiss Poker (ARC) AY-3-8910


The 891x series continues to lose ground as it becomes more and more irrelevant in the video game audio market. Only about 20 games utilize the 891x, still mostly mahjong and gambling games.

List of 1991 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1991-??-?? Beeline (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Cherry Master (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Games V18.7C (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Hana wo Yaraneba! (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Hard Head 2 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Mahjong Angels: Comic Theater Vol.2 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Mahjong Comic Gekijou Vol.1 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Mahjong Pon Chin Kan (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Mahjong Tenkaigen (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Mahjong Vegas (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Mahjong Yarunara (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Poker Master (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Pop Shot (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Quizvaders (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Royal Card (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Ruleta RE-800 (ARC) AY-3-8912
1991-??-?? Skeet Shot (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Treble Top (ARC) AY-3-8910
1991-??-?? Yumefuda (ARC) AY-3-8910


Fewer than 20 games used the 891x series in 1992 marking an all-time low. All that remains are a few off-brand games, and the occasional quiz, slot, and mahjong games, but even these are often offset with a more impressive audio chip.

List of 1992 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1992-??-?? Blue Max (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Brick Zone (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Cherry Master '92 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Deluxe Monopoly (ARC) AY-3-8913
1992-??-?? Hanafuda Hana Tengoku (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Joker's Wild (SLOT) AY-3-8912
1992-??-?? Lucky Dice (SLOT) AY-3-8912
1992-??-?? Magical Odds (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Mahjong Cafe Time (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Monkey Mole Panic (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Multi Win (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? A Question of Sport (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Quiz TV Gassyuukoku Q&Q (ARC) AY-3-8910
1992-??-?? Super 1000 (SLOT) AY-3-8912


Still with fewer than 20 games, the 891x hangs on to a niche market of slot machines and games that don't require high-fidelity music.

List of 1993 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1993-??-?? Albert Square (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1993-??-?? Bingo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Cluedo Club (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1993-??-?? Coronation Street Showcase (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1993-??-?? Exciting Animal Land Jr. (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? The First Funky Fighter (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Five Clown (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Hot Blocks: Tetrix II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Joker Card (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Living In America (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1993-??-?? Mahjong Cafe Doll (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Mahjong Electron Base (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Quick Jack (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Royal Vegas Card (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Ruleta (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Shanghai III (ARC) AY-3-8910
1993-??-?? Super Cluedo Showcase (SLOT) AY-3-8913


The 891x continues to hold on for another year with slot machines and gambling games.

List of 1994 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1994-??-?? Best of Best (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Buena Suerte '94 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Diamond Derby (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Forte Card (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Hanafuda Hana Ginga (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Konkyuu no Hoshi (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Luxor Casino (ARC) AY-3-8913
1994-??-?? Mahjong Reach (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Mahjong the Mysterious Quest (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Mahjong the Mysterious Universe (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Mahjong the Mysterious World (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Perestroika Girls (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Pit Boss Megastar (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Pit Boss Megatouch II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Pit Boss Supertouch 30 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Quiz 365 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? S-Plus (ARC) AY-3-8912
1994-??-?? Skat TV (ARC) AY-3-8910
1994-??-?? Twins (ARC) AY-3-8910


Around 20 games seems to be the minimum for the 891x. Despite the chip now being completely out of date, it remains in use for assorted quiz, mahjong, and gambling games.

List of 1995 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1995-??-?? Bank Roll (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1995-??-?? Butterfly Video Game (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Caribbean Gold II (ARC) 2x AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Cleudo (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1995-??-?? Coronation Street: Rovers Return (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1995-??-?? Don Den Lovers Vol. 1: Shiro Kuro Tsukeyo! (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Enchanted Forest - NSW (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Hanafuda Hana Gokou (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Leader (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Mad Zoo (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Mahjong Dunhuang (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Mahjong Tensinhai (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Mahjong: The Dai Chuuka Ken (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Nettoh Quiz Champion (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Poker Monarch (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Quarter Horse Classic (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Sigma Poker (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Sky Lancer (ARC) AY-3-8910
1995-??-?? Taiwan Chess Legend (ARC) AY-3-8910


The outdated 891x series saw an unexpected resurgence in 1996 with over 30 games.

List of 1996 Games
Release Game Chip Sample
1996-??-?? 3 Bags Full (ARC) 2xAY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Arctic Wins (ARC) 2xAY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Black Rhino (ARC) 2xAY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Bondi Beach (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1996-??-?? Bottle 10 (SLOT) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Bounty Hunter (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1996-??-?? Chain Reaction (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1996-??-?? Cluedo Super Sleuth (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1996-??-?? Coronation Street (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1996-??-?? Cuore 1 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Domino Block (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Donkey Kong (SLOT) AY-3-8913
1996-??-?? Enchanted Forest (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Fortune Hunter (ARC) 2xAY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Golden Canaries (ARC) 2xAY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Janputer '96 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? K.G.Bird (ARC) 2xAY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Magic Card II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Mahjong Dai Touyouken (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Mahjong Fantastic Love (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Mahjong Janshin Plus (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Mahjong Raijinhai DX (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Mahjong Seiru Densetsu (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Megatouch III (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Megatouch IV (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? New Cherry '96 Special Edition (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? New Fruit Bonus '96 Special Edition (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Panel & Variety Akamaru Q Jousyou Dont-R (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Pool 10 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Pot Game (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Return of Sel Jan II (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Royal Poker '96 (ARC) AY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Top Gear (ARC) 2xAY-3-8910
1996-??-?? Top Poker (ARC) AY-3-8912
1996-??-?? White Tiger (ARC) 2xAY-3-8910


Document Download
Programmer's Manual Download - (info)
Technical Specification Download - (info)
Microchip Manual Download - (info)
University Evaluation Download - (info)

Picture Gallery

Emulation Status

MAME emulates each of the incarnations of the AY-3-8910 exceptionally well, as do most emulators for Intellivision, Apple II, Vectrex, Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum, and all incarnations of the MSX. However, ZEsarUX 8.0, ZX Spin and old versions of Speccy replace pitches of zero by buzzes, especially heard in LALA1 - Pick'n Pile (ZXS).